|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Half-life||9.3 – 10.6 hours|
|Excretion||Primarily feces, urine 10-20%|
Colchicine is a medication that treats gout. It is a toxic natural product and secondary metabolite, originally extracted from plants of the genus Colchicum (autumn crocus, Colchicum autumnale, also known as “meadow saffron”). It was used originally to treat rheumatic complaints, especially gout, and still finds use for these purposes today despite dosing issues concerning its toxicity. It was also prescribed for its cathartic and emetic effects.
The plant source of colchicine, the 
Colchicine was first isolated in 1820 by the tubulin.
 FDA approval
Oral colchicine had been used for many years as an unapproved drug with no prescribing information, dosage recommendations, or drug interaction warnings approved by the U.S. 
 Mechanism of action
Colchicine has a relatively low 
 Use in cancer treatment
 Off-label uses
 Botanical use
 Marketing exclusivity in the United States
- . Retrieved 14 May 2010.
- Edward F. Hartung (1954). “History of the Use of Colchicum and related Medicaments in Gout”. Ann Rheum Dis 13 (3): 190–200. doi:10.1136/ard.13.3.190. http://ard.bmj.com/content/13/3/190.full.pdf. (free BMJ registration required)
- Dewar, Michael J.S. (February 3, 1945) “Letters to Editor: Structure of colchicine,” Nature 155 : 141-142. Note: Dewar did not prove the structure of colchicine; he merely suggested that it contained two 7-membered rings. Colchicine’s structure was determined by X-ray crystallography in 1952 [Murray Vernon King, J. L. de Vries, and Ray Pepinsky (July 1952) “An x-ray diffraction determination of the chemical structure of colchicine,” Acta Crystallographica, 5 : 437-440]. Its total synthesis was first accomplished in 1959 [Albert Eschenmoser (1959) “Synthese des Colchicins,” Angewandte Chemie, 71 : 637-640.]
- Questions and Answers for Patients and Healthcare Providers Regarding Single-ingredient Oral Colchicine Products
- Cyberbotanica: Colchicine
- Description of ZD6126 on US National Cancer Institute website retrieved 26th April 2008
- Verne, GN; Davis et al (May 1998). “Treatment of chronic constipation with colchicine: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.”. Am J Gastroenterology 98 (5): 1112–6.
- Porter, S; Scully (June 2005). “Aphthous Ulcers (recurrent)”. Clin Evid 13: 1687–1694.
- Colchicine. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Emergency Response Safety and Health Database, August 22, 2008. Retrieved December 23, 2008.
- Leete, E. The biosynthesis of the alkaloids of Colchicum: The incorporation of phenylalaline-2-C14 into colchicine and demecolcine. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1963, 85, 3666-3669.
- Dewick, P. M.(2009).Medicinal Natural Products: A biosynthetic Approach. Wiley. p.360-362.
- Maier, U. H.; Meinhart, H. Z. Colchicine is formed by para para phenol-coupling from autumnaline. Tetrahedron Lett. 1997, 38, 7357-7360.
- Deppe, Carol (1993). Breed Your own Vegetable Varieties. Little, Brown & Company. p.150-151. ISBN 0-316-18104-8
- Kurt R. Karst (2009-10-21). “California Court Denies Preliminary Injunction in Lanham Act Case Concerning Unapproved Colchicine Drugs”. http://www.fdalawblog.net/fda_law_blog_hyman_phelps/2009/10/california-court-denies-preliminary-injunction-in-lanham-act-case-concerning-unapproved-colchicine-d.html.
- Harris Meyer (2009-12-29). “The High Price of FDA Approval”. Kaiser Health News and the Philadelphia Inquirer. http://www.kaiserhealthnews.org/Stories/2009/December/29/FDA-approval.aspx.
- Colcrys vs. Unapproved Colchicine Statement from URL Pharma
- “FDA Unapproved Drugs Initiative”. http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/EnforcementActivitiesbyFDA/SelectedEnforcementActionsonUnapprovedDrugs/ucm118990.htm.
- “About Colcrys”. Colcrys. URL Pharma. http://www.colcrys.com/about-colcrys.htm. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- Response from URL Pharma
- “FDA orders halt to marketing of unapproved single-ingredient oral colchicine”. 30 Sept 2010. http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm227796.htm.
- Feature on colchicine, by Matthew J. Dowd at vcu.edu
- NIOSH Emergency Response Database
- Eugene E. Van Tamelen, Thomas A. Spencer Jr., Duff S. Allen Jr., Roy L. Orvis (1959). “The Total Synthesis of Colchicine”. 10.1021/ja01532a070.